SCIENCE AND VALUES, Lecture by Dr. Loucas Christophorou, Member of the Academy of Athens


?p?st?? ?a? ???e?

(??ad??a ??????, ???s?a S??ed??a, ???t?, 19 ?p?????? 2005, ??a 20:00)

?????? G. ???st?f???? ??ad?a????

????e ???ed?e t?? ??ad??a? ??????, ????e? ?a? ?????? s???de?f??, ????e? ?a? ??????


??ste???e ?t? st?? s?e???? ??s? st?? ?p??? s?a????? t?s? d?aat??? ?e????ta, ?p???e? ??s? ??a a??e?. ??ste???e, a???, ?t? ? a?t????? p?? ??e? ? ?????p?? ??a t?? ea?t? t??, ?a?????e?, e? p??????, t?? e????a p?? ??e? d?a??f?se? ??a t? s???????p? t??, ?a? ?t? ? e????a a?t?, e t? se??? t??, p??sd?????e? t?? p???t?ta t?? a???? t??. ??ste???e, ep? p????, ?t? ? ?d?a t?? a????p?? ??a t? f?s? ?a? t? ??s? t?? s a?t? ep??e??e? t?? ?p??? t?? ??a t? t? s???st? t? ???a t?? ???? ?a? ?a?????e? t?? p??te?a??t?te? p?? p??sd?de? st?? a??e?.

?? a??e?, ?p?? ????????e, e??a? ?ee???de?? s??det???? a???? ?a? as??? ???t???a ?????? ta ?p??a ?a??d????? t?? a????p??? s?pe??f??? ?a? e??a? s?st?ata a?af???? e ta ?p??a ??????e t? p???? t?? ????. ?? a??e? p??sd???????? t?? a?et? a?, t?? t?? ?a? t?? t???t?t? a?, t? f???a ?a? t? ?e??a??d???a a?, t? st???? ?a? t?? af?s??s? a?, t?? ?pe??f??e?a a?, t?? t??fe??t?ta ?a? t?? ?a??s??? a?. ?? a??e? a? ?????? e?a?s??t??? st?? a?a?????s? ????? a????, a? s??e?????? se ???????e? ?a? ta?t?????a d?af???tt??? ta d??a??at? a? ?? at???. ?? a??e? ????? a??a ?ta? efa?????ta?.

?? a??e? ????? t?? t?? t???. ? as??? a??a ?a? a??a? s???stata? st? ?t? d?a???? a????e? t?? ??a??t?t? a? ?a e?t??s??e t?? a??a t?? ?a? st? s?as?a p?? ??e? a?t? ??a t? ??? a?. ?a? ?p?? a????? ?? p???e?? a? e??a? e?s?at???e? s e?e??e? t?? s??a????p?? a?, ?ts? ?a? ?? a??e? a? e??a? a??a?a e?s?at???e?. ?e? p????e ?a e????s??e ? ?a e?t??s??e t?? a??a t?? a???? ????? ?a t??? ap?d?s??e ? ????? ?a ap?de????e ??p??a a??a t???. ? ???e ?a ap? t?? a??e?, ?p?? t?? d??a??s????, t?? e?e??e??a?, t?? a???p??pe?a?, t?? a??p??, ?.t.?., ?a?????eta? e? p?????? ap? t?? ???p?? a??e?. ?? a??e? ?fe????? t?? a??a t??? st? s???pa??? t?? ????? a????. ??sa ap? a?t? t?? e?s??t?s? ?a? a????ep?d?as? t?? a???? a?ad?eta? ? a??a?a a????e???t?s? t???, ? d?ap?st?s? a??a??? ??????, ?a? ? a????? a??a??? seas?? ?a? s??as??. ??afa??eta?, ep?s??, ? ?pa??? ?a? ?ee??a??? e??t?ta? t?? a???? t?? a????p?? ?a? ? d??at?t?ta s?????s?? t?? a???? se ??a ?????e???? ap?de?t? s?st?a a????. ? a??a ?a? a??a? ????eta? ep????? ?a? ap? t?? a?? st?? ?p??? ? s???e?????? a??a e??s??e? t?? e??t?ta ?a? t? s????? t?? a???? t?? a????p??.

?? a??e? s??e??? d?a??f????ta? ?a? s???a pa?a?????, t??????st?? ??a ???? t???, st?? ??s?a t??? aet???te?, sta?e???. St?? pa?ad?s?a??? e??e?e?? a??e?, -- ?p?? e?e??e? t?? a??a?a? ????????? f???s?f?a? ?a? t?? ???st?a??s?? -- ????? p??ste?e? ?a? ???e?, ?e?te?e?, ?p??, st?? ??e? a?, ?? a??e? p?? af????? st? ?t??. ?s???????ta? ??p????, ?st?s?, ?t? ?a ap? t?? a??a??? p?? ep?fe?e ? s??????? ep?st?? ?a? ? ep?st?????? te???????a e??a? ? ?p????s? t?? ?p??tat?? a???? t?? a????p?? ?a??? ?a? ? ?e???? ???s? t?? a????. ?a?t??, a?ap?fe??ta, se ?a p????a??st??? ???????a, ?p?? ? d??? a?, ?p???e? ??a f?sa e???e?a? t?? a????, s???????? d?a???t?? ?p?st??????? ?t? ?? a??e? t?? a????p?? ???d??e???? ap? t? d????s? t?? d?af???p???s?? ?a? ap? t?? a???s? t?? ?????????? a??s?t?ta?. ?a?at????? ?t? ?? pa?ad?s?a??? a?t???e? a??e? t?? e?????? p???t?s?? ?p??????? ?a? ?t? t?? d?ad??eta? ? ??s?? t?? ??d?te??? ??????f?a?. ????? p???? ????? apa?s??d??a ??a ?a ?p?????s? t?? pa?a????p???? a???? ?a? ?s???????ta? ?t? ?se? ap? t?? a??e? ap?????? ?e?????ta? as??aste? e t?? s?e????? s?????e?, pe?????f??ta? ?? e?t?e?st????, ? a??a ?a? e?????p?????ta?. ? ???s?e?a, ??????, de? ap?te?e? p???? t?? ???st? a??e?t?a ??????. S?e?a, ?p?st???????, ? ?????a t?? d??a??s????, ? ?d?a t?? ??????, ta ???t???a t?? a?et?? ????? ??a p??s??e? s?et??? a??a, ?a? a?t? t? ap?d?d??? st?? ep?d?as? t?? ep?st???. ??e???t?ta ap? t?? ????t?ta t?? a??t???, ??sae, fa??eta?, ta a?a?a e??p???t??? st???e?a t?? p???t?s?? a? ?a? d?e??t?aste a????t? p???? ??a t? t? ep?t????? e?aste ee?? ?? ?????p??.

?? a?afe????e, ???p??, p??ta st?? a??e? t?? e?????? p???t?s?? ?a? t?? ???s?e???, ?? pa?a??te?e?, ?a? a???????? st?? a??e? t?? ep?st??? ?a? t?? a??e? st?? ep?st??.

2. ?? a??e? ??s???ta? st?? ???e? t?? p???t?s??

? ?st???a d?d?s?e? ?t? ?a???a? p???t?s?? de? e??a? d??at?? ????? t? s??a??es? se ??a s?st?a ?????? a????. ? ?st???a d?d?s?e? ep?s?? ?t? ? p???t?s?? t?? a????p?? ???e? se p????? ???sse? ?a? ?t? ap? t?? 6,000 pe??p?? e?????? ????t???e? p??????? ?? a??e? t?? p???t?s???? s?st??t?? t?? a????p??. ? p???t?s??? ??? p??? t?? a????, ep?s?????? d??s??? ?st??????, s?ss??e?se e t?? p???d? t?? ?????? ?????e? a???? d?af??et???? ?a? e???e?e? a???? a??a?a as??aste? ?a? ?d???se se p???t?st??? d?af???p???s? ?a? st? ???st? p???t?s??? ap????s?. ?ts?, st?? ??e? a?, ?? e?????? p???t?s?? t?? ?a?? t?? ??? d?at????? a??? as??? d?af??et???? ?e???se?? pa?? t? ?e????? ?t? ????? e??p????e? e p???????? t??p???. ?? p???t?s?? t?? a????p?? p?????? t?? ?d?? t?? ?????p?, e?????? ?a? ???????? (d?af???p?????) t??? ?a???, d?at????? t?? p???t? ?a? t?? ???f?? t?? a????p?t?ta? ?a? p????? f???? d?a????????, d?st????, t?? as???a t?? s????s??.

???, pa?? t?? ?st????? t?s? t?? a????p?? ??a p???t?s??? d?af???p???s?, sta te?e?ta?a 500 ?????a ?a? ?????? st?? pe?as??? a???a, pa?at??e?ta? ?a t?s? ??a p???t?s??? epa?as?????s?, ???? t?? pa???s??? p???t?st???? a?ta??a??? t?? ?p??e? ep?fe?e ?????? ? ???s? t?? s???????? ep?st??????? te???????a?. ??a??????eta? af e??? ?t? ? p??????a ?a? ? ?d?a?te??t?ta t?? e?????? p???t?s?? apa?te? seas? ?a? d?af??a??, ?a? pa?at??e?ta? af et???? ?t? ? s???pa??? t?? e?????? p???t?s?? ?a? ? e??????? s???s? t?? ?a?? p?? a?t?p??s?pe????, p???p???te? s?????s? t?? e?????? p???t?s?? se ??a ?e???? ap?de?t? s?st?a a???? as?s???, e? p??????, sta ????? t??? st???e?a. ? s??????? ???p?? a????e???t?s? t?? ?a?? t?? ??? p??sf??e? t? d??at?t?ta a??de???? e??? ????? ?st? a????? ?????? a???? ?a? t?? ap?d??? p????? ap? t?? ep? ????? a??e? t?? e?????? p???t?s?? ?? s?p????at???? t?? ?????? a????.

3. ?? a??e? ??s???ta? st? ???? t?? ???s?e???

Se ????? t??? p???t?s??? ?a? se ??? t?? ?st???a ?p???e? ? p?st? st? Te?, ? p?st? st?? ?pa??? e??? ????? ??s??, p??a ap? t?? pa???ta f?s???, ?a? ?? s??a??????e? ?pe?at???? a??e? t?? ???s?e?a?. ?a?? t?? p????a??s? t?? p?st?? (p?? pa?a??????e? e?e???? t?? e?????? p???t?s??) ?p???e?, ?st?s?, ????t?ta st? as??? d?das?a??a t?? e????? ???s?e???. ?a??? st? ???s?e?t??? p?st? ed?e???? a?t????e?? ap? t?? ?p??e? ap??????? ?? as???? a??e? t?? a??p??, t?? a???p??pe?a?, t?? a??a??t?ta?, ?.?.p. Sta ??? t?? ???s?e???, ???fe? ? f???s?f?? / ?st?????? P. Tillich, ? ?d?a ? ???s?e?a ???e? t? s?as?a t??, ?a? e?e??? st? ?p??? de???e?, ?efe??e? t?? ?d?a?te??t?t? t?? ?a? ???eta? p?e?at??? e?e??e??. ? e??t?ta t?? ???s?e?t???? a???? ep????? p??pe? ?a a?a??t??e? sta ??? t?? ???s?e?t???? epe???a?, sta ?p??a ?d????? ?? pa???????? ?a? ?d?a?te??? d???? t?? ep? ????? ???s?e???. ?ts?, a? ?a? ? ep? ????? d?at?p?s? t?? a???e?a? ap? t?? ???e ???s?e?a e??a? ?st????? pe?????s???, ? a???e?a st?? ?p??a a? ?d??e? e??a? ????? st?? p?st? ???e ???s?e?a?. ?a? t??t? ??at? ?p?????? p?????, s?p????at???? d???? p?? ?d????? st?? e???e? a??e? ?a? ???????????? t?? ??s?a ?a? t? ???? t???. ???a ?a? t? a?t??et? ?a? e????? a???e?a?, e?pe ? f?s???? Niels Bohr, d??at?? ?????sta ?a e??a? ?a e? ?s?? e???? a???e?a, ?a ???? ??? t??. ? t?s? ep????? ??a ????????s? de? s??ep??eta? e??at??e??? t?? d???? a? p???t?s??, ??te t?? d???? a? ???s?e?a?, a??? ep????e? t?? d?at???s? t??? ?? s?p????at???? ??e?? ?a? p???s??te???, ?e????te??? ?a? a?t??e?e????te??? p?a?at???t?ta?.

?? ?????te?e? t?? ???s?e???, a ?d?a?te?a ? ???st?a??s??, e??a? a????p??e?t?????. ??ese????, ?p?? p??s?p??? a?t??a???a?, ?t? ? Te??, p??? ap? 15 pe??p?? d?se?at????a ?????a, d???????se e? t?? ?de??? ta a????? ????? ?a? ??ese t??? f?s????? ????? ?a? ????se t? d?ad??as?a ? ?p??a ?d???se st? s?e???? s?pa?. ??t? ? d?ad??as?a et?t?e?e d?ad????? a?t??????e? ?a? st???e??d? s??t?a se at?????? p????e?, t??t??? se ?t?a, ?a? a?t? a???????? se p???p???a ???a ?a? s?st?ata ??a?? ?a ?p?ast????? e?s??e?d?t? ???, ?a? a??s??e ?sa ap? t? e?e??ss?e?? a?t? s?pa? ??a ??s? p??s?p?? ????? e t? d??? T?? e????a, ??ad???? e?s??e?d?t?? ?p???e??, a?epa????pt??, ?a? ??a sp?t? a???? ?a? ep?st?????. Tee???d??, ???p??, e??a? ? p?st? p????? ???s?e??? ?t? ? a??tat? p??? t?? a???? e??a? ? Te?? ?a? ?t? ?? a??e? e??a? ap??a???e?? t?? ????s?? t?? Te?? st?? ?????p?. ? ?e??? p????e?s? t?? ???s?e?t???? a????, t??? p??sd?de? ??a ?pe?at???, pa?a????p??? ?a? e??p???t??? ?a?a?t??a, ?ts? ?ste ?a ?e?????ta? ap? t??? ?pad??? t?? ???s?e??? a??te?e? t?? ????? a???? t?? a????p??. ?a?? ta?ta, ?a? e? a?t?a?, ?s??, a?t?? t?? ???s?e?t???? a?t????e?? ??a t?? a??e?, ????aste ??t??e? epa?e??????? s??????se??, a?t?d????? ?a? p????? p??? a????? st?? d?a????st???? ??a?? p?? ????et??? ?? ???s?e?e? t?? a????p??.

4. ?? a??e? t?? ep?st??? ?a? ? ep?d?as? t?? ep?st??? st?? pa?ad?s?a??? a??e?

? ep?st?? e?e??? t?? t??p? ?e?t?????a? ?a? ap??a??pte? t?? ???f?? t?? f?s???? ??s?? ?s? ?a?a ???? a????p??? e????e?a. ? ep?st?? ??? de? a?a?a??pte? a??e? ??te e??a? ?? ep?st??????? a?a?a???e?? ?p??at?stat? ??a t?? te?????, ??t???????? a???e?e? t?? ???s?e?a? ? t?? f???s?f?a?. ? ep?st?????? ???d?? e??a? ?????? epa??????: et??se?? ?a? ded???a s?s?et????ta?, ?? ??????? ?a? p?s?t???? s??se?? p?? ap??????? d?a??f????ta? se epe??????? ?????, ?a? a?t??, st? s????e?a, a?????ta? se ?e????te?e? ?e???t???? a???? ?a? ?ata?????ta?. ? ?e????te?? f?s??? ?e???s? af e??? e? st????eta? sta pe??aat??? ded???a, af et???? de e??p??e?, epe???e?, ?a? p????pe? ta f?s??? fa???e?a ?a? t? s?pe??f??? t???. S a?t? t? ??f?, s a?t?? t?? e??t?ta ???e?ta? ? ???f?? ?a? ? d??a? t?? ep?st???: ?? ?d?e? t?? ep?st??? ?a?a?t??????? t? f?s??? ??? ?a? ????? d??a? e??p???t???, s??det???, a?t????at???. ? ?d?a t?? a??t?ta?, ??a pa??de??a, de? pe?????fe? ap??? ??a e?d??? ??? ?a? f?s???? s?pe??f????, a??? epe???e? p?? e????eta? ? f?s?, t? ??at? t? s?pa? e????? ?a? ta?t?????a t?? ep?t??pe? ?a ???e?ta? ?a? ?a e?e??sseta?.

?a?? ta?ta, ? ???s? a? ??a t? f?s??? ??s? de? p??e? ?a epe?ta?e?, t??????st? ap? ?t? p??? t? pa??? ????????e, p??a? t?? ?e???? ????, ??a pa??de??a, st?? pe????? t?? ?????? ???? ?a? t?? s??e?d?s??. ?e? ??????? ??t??????? pe???ata st?? ep?st??. ??te ?a? ??????? f?s????? ????? p?? ep??????? seas? t?? d??a???t?? t?? a????p??. ???a?, ?????, a????? ?a t???ste? a??? ?t? ep?st???e?, ?p?? ? ??pe??sta? f?s???? Eugene Wigner, ?p?de??????? ?t? a? ?a? ?? ???? t?? f?s?? ?s????? ?a? ??a ta s?stat??? t?? ??s?? ????, e? t??t??? ?? ???? a?t?? ?a p??pe? ?a t??p?p??????? d?aat??? ??a ?a e????s??? ta fa???e?a t?? ????. ??t? e??a? ta ???a t?? ep?st???. ???pe? ?a ta seast??e ?a? ?a ? ta pa?a?????e ?ta? a?a??t??e t?? a??e? ? t?? d??at?t?te? t?? ep?st???.

? ep?st??, ???p??, per se de? as???e?ta? e a??e?. ?? ep?st???e? ??? as??????ta? e a??e? ?a? ? ?d?a ? ep?st?? ap? ??? t?? de? e??a? e?e??e?? a???? st?? e?t??es? t?? ep?st??????? ??e??a? ?a? st?? efa???? t?? ep?st??????? ???s??. ?p????e, ?????, ?a d?a??????e ?e???? d?? ?at?????e? a????: ???e? st?? ep?st?? ?a? a??e? t?? ep?st???.

???e? st?? ep?st??: ???? e????? ?t? ???? t?te ??a? p??e? ?a e??aste? st?? ep?st?? ?ta? e?t?? t?? a??a t?? a???e?a?. ??t??, ? ??e??a ??a t?? a???e?a st?? ep?st?? ep????e? st?? e?e???t? ?a ????? s?pe??f??? ? ?p??a de? d?af??e? p?s?t??? ? p???t??? e?e???? st?? e???te?? ???????a, ??at? s?f?te? e t?? ?s??s? t?? ep?st??? e??a? a??e? ???e? e e?e??e? t?? e???te??? ???????a?. ? ep?st?? a?t?pa?a??te? t?? e??as?a e??? ep?st???a e t?? e??as?a t?? ????? ep?st????? ?a? de? p??e? ?a ep???se? ????? d??a??s??? ?a? t?? ?a? seas? a??es? t???. ? ep?st??, ep? p????, st????eta? st?? e?e??e?? ep????????a t?? ep?st????? ?a? ??a st?? a??a?a ep?st?s??? ?a? a????e???t?s? t???. ? a???? t?? d??stas?? ap??e??, ? e?e??e??a t?? s????? ?a? t?? ?????, ? d??a??s???, ? a???p??pe?a, ? a?t?seas?? e??a? ??e? a??e? p?? ????? a?a?????ste? st? pa?e???? -- p??? p??? ap? t? s??????? ep?st?? ?? a?a??a?e? ??a ?a ep???se? ? ???????a. St?? ?d?e? a??e? st????eta? ?a? ? ep?st?? ??a t? ?e?t?????a t?? ??at? ?? a??e? a?t?? e??a? d?a???????? ?a? ??at? ? ep?st?????? ??e??a e?te?e?ta? ap? ?a? ??a t??? a????p???, ?a? ??at? ? ep?st?? e??a? p??t?st?? a????p??? d?ad??as?a. ?ts?, e?? ? ep?st?????? e????a ??a t?? ??s? s??e??? a????e?, ?? a??e? p??? st?? ?p??e? st????eta? ? ep?st?? ?a? ? ep?st?????? s?pe??f??? pa?a????? ??s?ast??? ?? ?d?e?, d?a???????? pa?a????p??e? a??e?.

?p?????? ??? ?a? ?? a??e? t?? ep?st???, a??e? p?? ?a?a?t??????? t?? ?d?a?te?? t??p? s????? ?a? ?e?t?????a? t??.

???e? t?? ep?st??? - ? ????????s?? e??a? a??a t?? ep?st???. ???sd?????e? t?? t??p? e t?? ?p??? a?a?a??pteta? ? ???s? st?? ep?st?? ?a? t? e?d?? t?? ???s?? p?? d??eta? ? ep?st?? ?? a?t??e?e????, ?? a??????. - ? a?t??e?e????t?ta ?a? ? ap?de??t???t?ta t?? ???s?? e??a? a??e? t?? ep?st???. ? ep?st?? ap?d??eta? ?? a?t??e?e???? ??? t? ???s? p?? p??e? ?a ep?ea???e? pe??aat??? ? ?a ap?de???e? ?e???t???. ?p?st?????? a???e?a e??a? e? ???s?? a?t? p?? ?? ep?st???e? ap?de??????? ?a? ?e????? ?? ep?st?????? ???? e? a?t???se? e t? ???s?e?t??? ? t? f???s?f??? a???e?a p?? ????eta? e? t?? ???, ap??a??pt??? ? a???at???. ??t? ?s??e? pa?? t? ?e????? ?t? ? ep?st?????? ???s? ??e? etaat??? ?a? ??? ???? ?a?a?t??a. ? ep?st?????? ???s? de? e??a? ?p??e?e????, a??? ??te ?a? ap???t?. - ? a?a?????? ?a? ? d?????s? t??? ?????? e??a? a??a t?? ep?st??? ?p?? e??a? ?a? ? seas?? ?a? ? ap?d??? t?? ded?????. ? pa?ap???s? t?? ep?st??????? ded????? e??a? t? f?e??te?? t?? e?????t?? st?? ep?st??. ?? ?a? asfa??? ?p?????? ?at? ?a????? e?????a ????sata pa?ap???s?? t?? ded?????, a?t? ??????a ap??a??pt??ta? ??at? ? ap?de??t???t?ta e??a? a??a t?? ep?st??? ?a? ??at? ? ep?st?? ??s?eta? ?p? s??e?? a?t???e???. - ? e??t?ta ?a? ? s????? t?? ???s?? e??a? a??e? t?? ep?st???. ?ts?, s??t????eta? ?a? e??a?a e?e??sseta? t? s????? t?? ep?st??????? ???s??. - ? tape???f??s??? e??a? a??a t?? ep?st???, p??t?st?? ??at? ? ep?st???a? ??????e? ?t? ?s? e???? ?a? ?a e??a? ? p??sf??? t?? st?? ep?st??, a?t? ?a ????ta?, a??? ? ??????a, ap? ??p???? ????, e? ?a??? ?a ?epe?aste?, ?a? ??at? ??a ?a a?a?a???e? a?t? p?? a?a?????e st???????e st??? ??p??? ?a? ta ep?te??ata t?? ????? ep?st?????. - ? ?????e????t?ta ?a? ? ?a??????t?ta e??a? a??e? t?? ep?st??? e d?p?? s?as?a: Se ?t? af??? st?? ?s?? t?? f?s???? ???? ?a? se ?t? af??? st? ???d? t?? ep?st???, st?? e?????t?t? t??, st? ???ssa t??, st?? ep?pt?se?? t??, ?a? st? s?et??? t?? apa?ta??? a????p?? st?? ep?st??. - ? s??e??as?a e??a? a??a t?? ep?st???. ? ep?st?????? ???s? e??a? t? ap?t??esa t?? ????? p????? a????p?? ?a? t?? s???????? s?et???? t?? ?a?? ???? t?? ep????. ??d?e? ?a? ???a??e? ap? ??a ta ???? ?a?a? ?a e??????ta? a?? st?? ep?st?? ?a? ?? e? t??t?? ? ep?st?? ????eta? sa? pa??de??a ??a t? t? p??e? ?a ep?t??e? ? ?????p?? e t? s??e??as?a. ?ts?, ? ep?st?? ?a??stata? ????? ????????? t?? a????p??. ?p???e? ?a ep?st?? ? ?p??a a? e???e? se a?t??es? e t?? p????? ???s?e?e? ?a? t??? p?????? e??????? p???t?s??? p?? e???te a? ????????. ? ep?st?? ep????? ??e? e??p???t??? a??a ??? ??? ap? p?e???? a?t??e?e????? ???s??, a??? ?a? ap? p?e???? ?????????? s??????. - ? a????p?s?? e??a? a??a p???d??stat? t?? ep?st???. G?at? ? ep?st?? e??p??ete? p??????t??p?? t?? a????e? t?? a????p??, e???e? t?? p??? t??, ?a? a????e? t?? e?e??e??a t?? e t? ??a ???s? p?? t?? pa???e? ?a? e t?? ??e? ep?????? p?? t?? p??sf??e?. G?at? ? ep?st?? ape?e??e???e? t?? ?????p? ap? t?? ea?t? t?? ?a? ap? t?? s???????p? t??. ? ?????p?? ??f??e ap? t?? p???ata???e?? t?? ?a? ?? ?????p?? apa?t?sa? e?e??e??a ?a? d??a??s??? ?a? seas? ?ta? t? ep?st?????? p?e?a e??e d?ad??e? a??es? t???. ? a????p?s?? e??a? a??a t?? ep?st??? ??at? ? ep?st?? e??p??ete? p??????t??p?? t?? ?????? a????e? t?? a????p??, e?????e? t? s??????? t?? s??e?d?s? ?a? p??sa???e? t?? a??e? t?? st?? s??????e? s?????e? t?? ???? t?? ?????ta? t?? ?ts? ?a e?p????se? ?a??te?a t?? ?????? t?? ?p???e?se??. ? s??e?d?s?, ?p?? ????????e, ??e???eta? s?e?a t? ???s?. ?p?? a??fe?a ?a? se p??????e?? ????a ??, a? a??? st?? ???e? t?? p???t?s?? ??s?eta? ? ?e??af?t?s? t?? a????p??, ? ???????a de? p??e? ?a ???e? a?????? p???t?s??? ????? t?? ep?st??. ? a????p?s?? e??a? a??a t?? ep?st??? ??at? ? ep?st?? ?a???e??e? ?a? ?p?ast??e? t?? e?p?da.

??t?? ?a? pa????e? a??e?, se s??d?as? e ta ?d?a?te?a ?a?a?t???st??? t?? ep?st??????? ???s?? ?p?????sa? p?????? ?a d?e??t????? ?at? p?s?? ?? ep?st??????? a??e? p??pe? ?a a?t??atast?s??? t?? pa?ad?s?a??? a??e? t?? a????p??. ?at? p?s?? ? ep?st?????? ???d?? e??a? ? ??ad???? d???? st? ???s? ?a? ?at ep??tas? ?a? ef ?s?? ??? ? ????? ??? ep?pte? ??s?ast??? st? ped?? t?? ep?st??? ?at? p?s? ? ??? (??? ?a? e????e?a) e??a? ? as??? p?a?at???t?ta st? s?pa?. ?at? p?s?? t? a?t??e?e?? ?a? ta a?t?a e ta ?p??a as???e?ta? ? ep?st?? e??a? ta ??a a?????? ?a? ep????? ??? ? ep?st?? d??ata? ?a ap??a???e? t?? a?t??e?e???? a???e?a t?? p?a?at???t?ta?. ?at? p?s?? ? ep?st??????? ?tete????s?? a?t??at?st?se t?? ?d?a t?? ?e?? e t?? ?d?a t?? f?s??, ?a? t?? ?e??? e t?? f?s??? ???. ?at? p?s?? ? ep?st?? ?? ???d?? ?a? ?? ???s? p??a? t? ??s? t?? Te??. ??ste??, ?t?, t? ?a ?e?p????e? ? ?a ap???t?p????e? ?ts? ? ep?st?? e??a? ?s?d??a? e t? ?a etat?ape? ? ep?st?? se ???, d??ad? ?a t?? afa??e?e? ? ep?st??????t?t? t??. ?a? a?t? e??a? ??a te??st?? sf??a e ap???epte? s???pe?e? t?s? ??a t?? ep?st?? ?s? ?a? ??a t?? ?????p?.

Ost?s?, ?? a??t??? s???e?? f?????? t?? s?e???? ?????p?. ??ste??, e? p???e????, ?t?, ?s??, ? ?????te?? ep?d?as? t?? ep?st??? st?? a??e? e??a? a????? t? t? ??e? ?a pe? ? ep?st?? ??a t?? ?d?? t?? ?????p?, ??a t?? e????a t?? a????p??. ?? ea?????e ???p?? ???? a??a s a?t? t? ??a.

5. ? ep?st?????? ?p??? ?a? ?? s???pe??? t??

S?f??a e t?? pa?a???t????? Richard Leaky, t?sse??? e??a? ?? ep???? p?? ?a?a?t??????? t?? ?st???a t?? ???? st? ??: (1) ? a??? t?? s?pa?t?? p??? ap? pe??p?? 15 d?se?at????a ?????a (t?te ?p???e ??? a?t??????a ?a? st???e??d? s??t?a), (2) ? a??? t?? ?d?a? t?? ???? - ???? ?p? ??f? ???????a??s?? - ??p?? 3,5 d?se?at????a ?????a st? pa?e????, (3) ? a??? p?????tta??? ???a??s?? p??? ap? pe??p?? ?s? d?se?at????? ?????a (? ??? s a?t? t?? pe???d? ????e p???p???? e t?? ef???s? f?t?? ?a? ????), ?a? (4) ? ef???s? t?? a????p???? s??e?d?s?? p??? pe??p?? 2,5 e?at????a ?????a. ? p???t?s?? e??a? ??t? ?a????????, ???. ?s?? p??t?efa??st??e p??? ap? 35,000 ?????a (t?te ?p?????? ?? p??te? e?de??e?? ?t? ? ?????p?? ??ae t??? ?e????? t??).

S?e?a, ? ep?st?? epe?te??e? t?? ????a???a t?? a????p?? st? f?s? ?a? st?? ?d?? t?? ?????p?. ?d?se ? ep?st?? st?? ?????p? p??t?fa?e?? d???e?? e t?? ?p??e? p??e? ?a p??e? sta ????a t?? t? d??? t?? e??????, ?a a????e? t?? ea?t? t?? ?a? t?? ?p????p? d???????a, ?a ep?f??e? se ??????? d??st?a ?a?, ?s??, ?e?e?? a??a??? p?? e?at????a ?????a de? ?at????sa? ?a ep?f????? st? pa?e????. ??t?? ?? d???e?? f????? t?? ?????p? p??a? t?? pa?ad?s?a??? a???? ?a? t?? ?????? t?? s?st??t??. F????? ?a? t?? ep?st???a p??a? t?? pa?ad?s?a??? a???? ?a? a???? t?? ep?st??? ?a? ?a??st??? p????at??? ?? a?t?? t?? ?s????s? ?t? ? ???s? p?? pa???e? ?? ep?st???a? e??a? e? ???s?? ??a t? ?a?? t?? a????p??.

???? a?t?? t?? e?e???e??, ?p?????? e?e???? p?? ?s???????ta? ?t? ? s?e????? ?????p?? ????se ?a ???s??p??e? t?? ep?st?? t?? se ?a s?st?at??? ep??es? e?a?t??? t?? ea?t?? t??. ?????? ep??e???at??????? ?t? ? efa???? t?? ep?te???t?? t?? ep?st??? st?? ?????p? d????se t?? ?d?a t?? a????p?? sa? ??t? t? e?a??p?ep?? ? ?e?? ?a? t?? a?t??at?st?se e ap??e?? p?? ??p??? t?? ?????p? ?? ??a a??? ??? t?? f?s?? ?, a??a, sa? ?a s?????? ?????. ?????, p???, ?e????? ?? t? e?a??te?? p????a t?? ep???? a? t?? e?e???t??? a?t??p??as?, ?p?t??s?, ?a? apa????p?s? t?? a????p?? ?a? d?e??t??ta? a????t? t??e? de ?e??;

??e???t?ta ap? t?? ????t?ta ?a? t? ??e??? t?? f??? p?? epe??????? a?t?? ?? ap??e?? ?a? a?t? ta e??t?ata, ??e?, a?af???a, tape????e? st?? ??e? a? ? ?????p??. ? e????a t?? a????p?? ??e? ?e?????se? ?a? t? ????? t?? a??st?a ??e? s?????e?. ??ste??, ?t? ? t???? e?af???s? t?? ?d?a? t?? a????p?? ?? ??t? t? ?e????st? ?a ?ta? p??? ?atast?ept??? ??a t?? ?d?? ?a? ??a t?? ??? ???.

?? d??e ???p?? e????? ap? t?? ep?pt?se?? t?? ep?st??????? ???s?? st?? ap??e?? s?et??? e t?? ?d?a, t?? e????a t?? a????p??.

?p?? ?d? a??fe?a, d?afa??eta? ?t? t? s?pa? ???f????se t?? ?????p? 15 d?se?at????a ?????a ?a? ?t? ?a se??? ap? sp???e? ??s???? s??????e? ?at?st?sa? d??at? t? ???. ?????? t? ?e????? a?t?, ?a? t?? pa???s?a t?? a????p?? st?? p?a??t? a?, t??a?a. ????? p?ste???? ?t? ? Te?? ?d????se s??e??? a?t?? t?? e??????, a?t?? t?? pa???s?a ???f???a, p?? ????se te???? t?? ?????p? st? ??. ? de?te?? ?p??? p??sd?de? st?? ?????p? ?pe?at???t?ta ?a? ?p?de????e? t?? a??te?? a??a t?? se s??s? e t?? ?p????p? d???????a.

? ?p??? ??? a?t? ??a t? ?e????st? ??s? t?? a????p?? st? f?s? ??e? af?s?t??e? ap? s????????? ep?st???e?. G?a pa??de??a, ?p?st????eta? ?t? ? ??? e??a? e? ?a sp???a a??? f?s??? ?at?stas? t?? ????, ?t?, t??????st? st?? a??? t??, ? ?????p?? ?ta? s??de???? e ?at?te?a ??ta, ?t? p??pe? ?a d?a??afe? ? d?????s? a??esa st?? ????? ?a? t?? ????? ???, ?t? p??pe? ?a ta?t?ste? ? ??s?a t?? a????p?? e a?t? p?? ??e? ????? e ta ???a ??a, ?t? de? ?p???e? ?e????st? a????p??? f?s?, ?a?, a??a, ?t? p??pe? ?a ?p?a??s?e? ? ?????p?? ??a ?a ?????e? t? pe??????? ?a? ? ?p????p? ???. G?a p??t? f??? st?? ?st???a t??, ? ?????p?? fa??eta? ?a ?p????e? e?e???t??? t?? ea?t? t??, e t?? esfa????, ?????, a?t????? ?t? ?ts? ???? t? f?s? ?a? t? ???.

?? e??a? ???p?? ??ad??? st?? ?????p?; ? ??ad???t?ta t?? a????p?? de? ???e?ta? asfa??? st? f?s??? ? st? ???????? t?? s???es?, a??? sta d?a??????? t?? ?a?a?t???st???: st? ?????? t??, st?? e?e??e??a t??, st? s???? t??, st?? d?a???t???? ?a? st?? p?e?at???? t?? d???e??, st? ????s? t?? ??a ???s? ?a? e?e??e?? d?e?e???s?. ???a?, ? ?????p??, ?? ???st???, ??????, p?e?at???, ?????, a?t????st??? e a??e? p?? de? ap??????? ??? ap? t?? a????? ??a ep???s?. ???a? ??a??? ? ?????p?? ?a d??????e? ??s??e???e? ??a t? s?pa? ?a? t? ???, ?a s????e? t?? ep????e? ?a? t?? pep????se?? t?? ?????, ?a ???e? ?????? ep??????, ?a de???e? e?sp?a???a, ?a a?ap?, ?a a?t???s???eta?.

???a? asfa??? ? ?????p?? ??a ap? ta ??a, e?s?at???? ?a? s??e????? e t? f?s? (apa?t??eta? ????? ? ?????p?? ap? ta ?d?a ?t?a ?p?? t? ???e t? ????). ?e?????e? ??? ? ?????p?? ap? ta ???a ??a ???? t?? pa?ap??? ?a?a?t???st????. ?a? ?s??, ep? p????, ap?d????ta? t?? ?????p? ?? t? ?e???f? d???????a, ?ata?????, ?????, ?t? ?a??te?a t?? ?pe???? t?? par excellence ?a? t?? ???st? t?? p?? t?? ????e ap? t? Te? ?a? t? f?s?, ?a t?? ep?ste????? ???????? t? d???????a.

6. ? ?????e????t?ta ?a? ? s?p????at???t?ta t?? a????

?? ?????e ??? te???? st?? ?????e????t?ta ?a? st? s?p????at???t?ta t?? a???? ?a? st? d??at?t?ta a?a?????s?? ?????? a????, ap?de?t?? ap? t??? ?a??? ?a? t?? ???????e? t?? p?a??t? a?, ???s??? ??a t?? ep???s? ?a? t?? p???d? t?? a????p??.

O? pa?a????p??e? ?a p????sa? ?a ?a?a?t???s???? e?e??e? ?? a??e?, ?? ?p??e? pa?a????? p?a?t??? a?ep???aste? ap? t?? p???t?st???? d?af???? t?? ?a?? ?a? ?? ?p??e? ?????ta? e?e??e?a ap?de?t?? ap? t??? ?a??? t?? ??? ?? d???? t??? a??e?, pa?? t?? t???? e???????????? e?????? t??? ap????se??. ?? pa?a????p??e? a??e? e??a? ??a ?????? a??e?, as?s??e? st?? a????p??? a???p??pe?a ?a? st?? ap?de????? ????t?ta a??esa st?? a??e? t?? ?a?? ?? ?p??e? ????? e?s?at??e? sta e????? a?????at??? s?st?ata. ????? ??? ?t? ?a? e?????? a??e? e??? ?a?? d??at?? ?a ?a?a?t???st??? ?? pa?a????p??e? - pa?? t?? ?d?a?te??t?t? t??? - e?? ? ap?d??? t??? ap? ?????? p???t?s??? ??? ?a?? ?a p????se ?a ep?f??e?. ?? pa?a????p??e? a??e? s???ta? t?? ?d?a?te??t?ta t?? a???? t?? e?????? p???t?s??. ??a??t???ta? epe????? a??esa st?? a??e? p?? epe??????ta? st?? ????t???e?, t??? p???t?s??? ?a? t?? ???s?e?e?.

St? ??e???? S?p?s?? t? ?p??? ??????se ? ??ad??a ?????? t?? pe?as??? ???? ??a t?? a??de??? t?? pa?a????p???? a????, ?at????st??a? eta?? ????? ?a? ?? a??????e? pa?a????p??e? a??e?: - ?? p??s?p? - ? seas?? t?? ????, t?? e?e??e??a?, t?? d??a??s????, t?? f??a???e?a?, ?a? t?? a????p???? a???p??pe?a? - ? a??p? ?a? ? a??a??t?ta (? ???s?? ?a???a?) - ? d?asf???s? t?? p???t?st???? ?????????? t?? a????p??, t?? ?st?????? ded?????, ?a? t?? a?t??e?e????t?ta? t?? ???s??.

?s?? ??? ep?t???? ?a? ?a e??a? ? a?a??t?s? ??a pa?a????p??e? a??e?, ?a pa?a????? d?af???p?????e? ?a? a?t?te?e?? ?? p?e?ste? t?? a???? t?? e?????? p???t?s?? t?? a????p??. G?a a?t?? a????? t?? ????, ?????, ?t? ? a?a??t?s? t?? pa?a????p???? a???? p??pe? ?a s???de?eta? ap? t?? a?a?????s? ?a? t?? ap?d??? t?? e?????? a???? t?? ?a?? t?? ??? ?? s?p????at????. ?????? ap? t?? a??e? t?? e?????? p???t?s?? e?? efa?????ta? fa???e???? ?? s???????e?e? e??a? st?? ??s?a s?p????at???? p??se???se??, ???e? p?e???? ?a? ?e????st?? pe??????, ?a? e???te??? ?a? p???s??te??? ?????? p?a?at???t?ta? ?a? epe???a?, ?a? ??a p????? ?a s???p??????.

6. ?e???? s????a ?a? s?pe??sata

????e ???ed?e, ????e? ?a? ??????,

Ta ??e?s? t?? ????a ?? e ta e??? s????a ?a? s?pe??sata.

1. ??af???a st?? ??e? a? pa?at??e?ta? ?a ?e???? d????s? t?? pa?ad?s?a??? a????. ?a?at??e?ta?, ep?s??, ??a ?e????asa ? ?a e?af???s? t?? ?????? d?a????st???? ??a?? p?? st? pa?e???? ?e?????ta? apa?a?aste? se p????? te?????????? pe?????? -- ?d?a?te?a st?? ?at??????????? ep?st?e? -- p?? ?p???a??e? t? s?as?a t?? d?aes??a?t???? ep?d?as?? t?? pa?a????p???? a????, ?ts? ?ste ?a e?t?st?p??????? ta ?f??? ?a? ?a e?a??st?p??????? ?? a???t???? ep?pt?se?? t?? ep?st??????? te???????a?.

2. ? ep?st?? ?a? ?? ep?st??????? a??e? ????? ?e????e? ap? p?????? ?? t? ?p??at?stat? t?? pa?ad?s?a??? a????. ?? ep?st??????? ??? a??e? d??at? ?a ?e??????? ?? s?p????at???? pa?? ?? ?p??at?stat? t?? pa?ad?s?a??? a????. ? ?e???? ap?d??? t?? ep?st??? ?fe??eta? ?at? e????a ???? st? etaf?s??? t?? a?ep???e?a. ?f ?? st???? ??? a?t? e??ata?e?f?e?, ? ep?st?? ?a ????e? e d?af??et??? ???t???a ?a? ?a a?t?et?p?se? p?????e? a?t????se??.

3. Se ?t? af??? st?? a??e? ?a? sta ???a ??ata p?? ?pe?a????? t?? d??at?t?te? t?? ep?st??? (? e??a? e?t?? t?? ep?st???), ? ep?st???a? ??e? ?p?????s? ?a seaste? ta ?a????s??a ???a t?? ep?st??? ?a? ?a ap?fe??e? ?a ???e? e? ???at?? t?? ep?st??? ?ta? ??s?ast??? e?f???e? p??s?p???? a?t????e?? ? ap??e??. ??d???te?a, ?ta? ep?st??????? ?????e? epe?te????ta? p??a ap? t? ???s? t??? st?? ep?st??, ep????eta? seas?? st?? ep?st?????? a???e?a ?a? sta ep?st?????? ded???a.

4. ?? pa?a????p??e? a??e? e??a? ??????e? st?? ap?de????? ????t?ta t?? a???? t?? a????p?? ?a? e??a? p???p???se?? ??a pa???s?a ????? ?a? ??a ?a??d???s? t?? ??e??a? ?a? t?? efa????? t?? ep?st??????? ???s?? p??? ?fe??? t?? ???????a?. ????p???t??? t?? e??t?ta t?? p???t?s???? s?st??t?? t?? ?a?? ?a? t? s?????s? t??? se ??a ????? s?st?a a????. ? ?????e????t?ta t?? a???? p??pe? ?a a?a??t? e??t?ta ?a? ??? ta?t?t?ta a????.

5. ?a??????a e t?? pa?a????p??e? a??e? ep????eta? ? a?a?????s? t?? s?p????at???? a???? t?? a????p?? as?s??? st?? a?t????? ?t? ?a? st?? s?e???? ??s? t?? p???????? ?d?a?te??t?ta? p????? ap? t?? fa???e???? s???????e?e? a??e? e??a? s?p????at???? ??e?? ?a? pa??????e? p??se???se?? ?a? ?e????te??? p?a?at???t?ta?.

6. ? ?et??? d?e???t?s? t?? p?????t?? p?? a?t?et?p??e? ? a????p?t?ta p???p???te? s?f?a ?a? s??es? as?s??? st?? ep?st?????? ???s? ?a? st?? pa?a????p??e? a??e?. ??ste??, e? p???e????, ?t? de? e??a? d??at?? ??te ?a? ep????t? ?a ep??e????e? ??e???? t?? ep?st??????? ??e??a?, ??at? ??? se ?a e?e??e?? ???????a p??e? ?a d?at????e? ? a?e?a??t?ta t?? ep?st??? ?a? ?a pe?????ste? ? s??te??? t?? p?e???, st?? ?p??a de? a?af?????a se a?t?? t?? ????a.

7. ?e????, e?? ? s?as?a t?? a???? ?a? t?? ep?st??? st?? e??p???s? t?? ?a?? t?? ??? e??a? ?e???? a?a?????s???, ?a? e?? ?????a ?a? pe??ss?te?? a?a??????eta? ?t? p??a ap? t??? d?a????s??? pa?a??e? ? ?????? a????p?s??, ?a s??e??s?e? ?a? ?a a????e? ? af?s?t?s? t?? ?p??tat?? ??s?? t?? a????p?? st? f?s?. ?a ??ata p?? af????? st?? ?????p? a? ?a? ep?fa?e?a?? efa?????ta? ?? ap?? ?a? pe?????s???? s?as?a?, s???de???ta? p??????? ap? ??s??d? etaf?s??? e??t?ata ??a t?? a????p??? ?pa???. St? ?????, pe??ss?te?? ap? ?t? st? pa?e????, ?? d???????e? ?a? ?? d?af???e? sta ??ata a?t? ?a a??????? ??at? ??s???ta? a??? ??????a st?? etaf?s???? a?t????e?? a? s?et??? e t?? ?a?a?t??a t?? a????p?t?ta?, t?? ???s? t?? a????p?? ?a? t?? p??s?p??. S a?t??? t??? d?s?????? d????? p?? a? pe???????, p??pe? ?a seast??e t?? a???p??pe?a t?? a????p?? ?a? ?a ap?de????e t? p??s?p? t?? a????p?? ?? t?? ?p??tat? pa?a????p??? a??a, ?? t? ???st?? t?? e? t? ??s?, ?? e????a ?e???f?.

Sa? e??a??st?.